عنوان مقاله [English]
Inter-basin transfer through international, national, regional and local borders is undertaken to overcome the water shortage, meet the increasing demand of agriculture, industry, hydropower, home electricity and to achieve socioeconomic development. This term is defined as physical transfer of water from one basin to another; in such conveyance, one basin loses water (origin) and another one (destination) obtains the extra water.
Nowadays, inter-basin transfer at national and international level is becoming a wrong norm, which may cause irreversible harms to human future life if this process continues to be undertaken by coastal states and lands with shared maritime borders. Accordingly, this study was conducted to examine transfer of Caspian Sea’s water to Semnan Region in terms of domestic and international law. This paper was carried out using library method.
Findings indicate that contrary to high seas or oceans, Caspian Sea is closed so any change in it may lead to ecosystem change. Such changes directly affect the life of sturgeons threating the Caspian Fisheries. On the other hand, invasive fish species may be introduced to the Central Plateau leading to unknown consequences. Such plan has a direct impact on ports in Iran, which may motivate Russia to build a new damn on the Volga harming Caspian Sea as what occurred for Urmia Lake. In this case, those ports that are valuable for Iran economically, socially or militarily may become dry leading to low water level or loss of such ports.
Therefore, all of requirements should be taken before implementing such projects related to Caspian Sea before water transfer in order to prevent from harms caused by national capital loss.
Keywords: Water Transfer, Caspian Sea, Semnan, Harms, Environmental Law